Structure

Deformation or strain (deformation caused by stress)

The original  shape or volume or both have been altered by stress.

There are three kind of stress:

-         Compressional stress

rocks are squeezed or compressed by

external forces directed toward one an other. (shortening)

        

After:http://www.educ.uvic.ca/Faculty/jtinney/earth%20science/Compr.html

-Tensional stress:

Forces acting in opposite direction along the same line     

(lengthening)

After:http://www.educ.uvic.ca/Faculty/jtinney/earth%20science/Compr.html

-Shear stress:

Forces act parallel to each other but opposite direction resulted in displacement along closely spaced planes

 

After:http://www.educ.uvic.ca/Faculty/jtinney/earth%20science/Compr.html    

As all together:

Strain can be:

-elastic

if the deformed rocks return to their original shape when stresses are relaxed (squeezing tennis ball)

-Rocks that are strained beyond their elastic limit are deformed, and can not recover their original shape.

 

either elastic: fold (ductile)

or brittle: fracture

 

The type of strain depends on:

-kind of stress

-the amount of pressure

-temperature

-rock type

-length of time  

 

 

 

STRIKE and  DIP

Strike

Strike is the direction of a line formed by the intersection of a horizontal plain with an inclined plain such as a rock layer. The orientation of the strike line is defined by a compass to measure its angle in respect to North.

 

Dip

Dip is the measure of the maximum angular deviation of an inclined plane from the horizontal, so it must be measured perpendicular to the strike direction

 Strike and Dip diagram

After:  http://www.bhc.edu/academics/science/harwoodr/Geol101/study/structur.htm  

FOLDS

Folds are plasticly streained deformation. It is usually heppening deeper in the crust, because rocks which are close to the surface are usually brittle.

Monocline (simple bend)

 

Anticline (up-arched fold)

Syncline (downarched fold)

   

after:http://www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/10l.html

Symmetrical

 

assymetrical

 

after:http://www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/10l.html

overturned fold

 

after:http://www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/10l.html

Domes

 Fault terminology diagram

After:http://www.bhc.edu/academics/science/harwoodr/Geol101/study/structur.htm

basins

 Fault terminology diagram

After:http://www.bhc.edu/academics/science/harwoodr/Geol101/study/structur.htm

 

FAULTS

 

Fault are frsactures along which movement has occured parallel to the fracture surface.

Fault plane is the fault surface along which the movement occurs.

 

Hanging wall

footwall

Fault terminology diagram

After:http://www.bhc.edu/academics/science/harwoodr/Geol101/study/structur.htm

NORMAL FAULT (tensional force)

 

After:http://www.educ.uvic.ca/Faculty/jtinney/earth%20science/Compr.html

Reverse fault (compressional force)

 

After:http://www.educ.uvic.ca/Faculty/jtinney/earth%20science/Compr.html

thrust  fault

Type of reverse fault, where the dip of fault plane is less than 45.

After:http://www.educ.uvic.ca/Faculty/jtinney/earth%20science/Compr.html

Strike slip faults

Shering force (San andreas)

http://www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/10l.html

Right or left lateral)